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Israel-Gaza war hangs over haj as pilgrims flock to Mecca, amid ‘anger in broader Muslim world’


The haj, one of the five pillars of Islam, must be performed at least once by all Muslims with the means.

As of late Monday, around 1.5 million pilgrims had arrived in Saudi Arabia from abroad, most of them by air, the official Saudi Press Agency reported.

“It’s magnificent,” Mariam Comate, a 48-year-old from the Ivory Coast, said after reaching Mecca’s Grand Mosque.

“When I first saw the Kaaba, I was amazed,” she said, referring to the black cubic structure in the mosque towards which all Muslims pray.

Last year saw more than 1.8 million people complete the haj rites, which last for several days. Around 90 per cent came from overseas, mainly from elsewhere in the Arab world and from Asia, according to official figures.

Israel’s withering military operations against Hamas militants in Gaza have “created a lot of anger in [the] broader Muslim world”, turning this year’s haj into a “test” for Saudi leaders, said Umer Karim, an expert on Saudi politics at the University of Birmingham.

“Protest or performance is bound to happen by individuals or groups of pilgrims, and Saudis understand this is a slippery slope,” he said. “Thus for Saudi rulers, conducting haj is a matter of prestige but also a test of their governance.”

The bloodiest ever Gaza war broke out after Hamas’s October 7 attack resulted in the deaths of 1,194 people, mostly civilians, according to Israeli official figures.

The Israeli army then launched a devastating offensive on the Gaza Strip that has left more than 37,000 dead, most civilians, according to the Hamas-ruled territory’s health ministry.

Saudi Arabia has never recognised Israel, but de facto ruler Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman was considering establishing formal diplomatic ties with Israel before the October 7 attack.

Saudi leaders remain in talks with US officials about a so-called mega-deal that would see Riyadh recognise Israel in exchange for a deeper security relationship with Washington.

The Saudis will increase their control over the pilgrims to prevent any mobilisation around support for Gaza. It remains to be seen whether the pilgrims will respect Saudi wishes.

Madawi al-Rasheed, analyst

However, Saudi officials have said ties with Israel are impossible without “irrevocable” steps towards recognition of a Palestinian state, which the Israeli government strongly opposes.

Saudi King Salman issued a decree on Monday to host 1,000 pilgrims “from the families of martyrs and the wounded from the Gaza Strip”, bringing to 2,000 the number of Palestinian pilgrims to be hosted this year, according to the official Saudi Press Agency.

The haj is a source of legitimacy for Saudi rulers, and King Salman’s title includes “Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques” in Mecca and Medina.

Yet the Saudi government also “uses the pilgrimage to control Muslims worldwide”, as it can potentially bar critics from performing an essential religious rite, said Madawi al-Rasheed, a Saudi academic and opposition figure based in London.

“The Saudis will increase their control over the pilgrims to prevent any mobilisation around support for Gaza. It remains to be seen whether the pilgrims will respect Saudi wishes.”

The rites in Mecca and its surroundings fall again this year during the hot Saudi summer, with officials forecasting average high temperatures of 44 degrees Celsius (111 degrees Fahrenheit).

A group of pilgrims share umbrellas to protect themselves from the heat as they leave after offer prayers outside at the Grand Mosque in Mecca, Saudi Arabia on Wednesday. Photo: AP

Last year, more than 2,000 people suffered heat stress, which includes heatstroke, exhaustion, cramps and rashes, according to Saudi authorities.

The real figure was probably far higher, as many sufferers were not admitted to hospitals or clinics.

Pilgrims have already arrived en masse in Mecca to begin circling the Kaaba.

Large crowds at the haj have proved hazardous in the past, most recently in 2015 when a stampede during the “stoning the devil” ritual in Mina, near Mecca, killed up to 2,300 people in the deadliest haj disaster.

Managing the gathering represents “a logistical achievement”, said Bernard Haykel, a Saudi expert at Princeton University, with extensive surveillance and monitoring in place for security and health reasons.

Pilgrimages to Mecca are a financial windfall for Saudi Arabia, generating billions of dollars as the world’s biggest crude oil exporter tries to develop its tourism sector.

Umrah, the pilgrimage which can be performed throughout the year, drew 13.5 million faithful last year, and authorities are targeting 30 million haj and umrah pilgrims by 2030.



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